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Classified Bibliographical Database
of Ancient Egyptian Medicine
and Medical Practice

Including: Palaeopathology, Biology
and Human Anthropology
(from A.D. 1676 to the Present)

compiled and edited by
Peter A. Piccione

© 2003

Description

This bibliogaphical database is still in progress. It is a major and comprehensive bibliography designed to facilitate academic research on the subjects of medicine and health in the Nile River Valley from the prehistoric era to early Christian times. As of Spring 2001, the bibliography contains about 3,000 citations that have been fully catalogued and cross-referenced in an electronic database employing the textbase programs INMAGIC DB/TEXTWORKS® and INMAGIC PLUS®. Currently, the entries are cross-referenced under 579 discrete subject headings.

Ultimately, the bibliography will comprise all academic and clinical studies published from A.D. 1676 to the present on Egyptian medical practices and notions, including, health conditions and related issues and the interconnections among ancient Egyptian, Greek and Roman, and Near Eastern medicines. To these ends, the compilation also contains studies on the palaeopathology of ancient Egypt and Nubia. It includes works on the pathological analysis of human remains (mummified and unmummified) to determine causes of death, identify diseases, and assess general levels of Egyptian and Nubian health. The bibliography contains specific entries on: distinct diseases and conditions, medical syndromes, human physiology, parts of the body, Egyptian conceptions of anatomy, aetiology, ancient therapies and procedures, psychological issuse (pertaining to personality and dreaming), pharmacopoeia and pharmacological agents, clinically oriented palaeobotany (i.e., medicinal plants), diet and nutrition, and eating customs. The bibliography also encompasses: Egyptian medical texts and papyri, dentistry, dental health and treatments, veterinary medicine, the activities and status of physicians and physician-priests, mummification, medically oriented human anthropology, and ethnology (the latter pertaining specifically to race-theory). Significantly, the bibliography catalogues studies pertaining to the connections between Egyptian medical practice and magico-religious beliefs. Thus, in addition to facilitating any clinical analyses, this work provides references for understanding the interrelationship between empirico-rational therapy and magical/cultic practices in ancient Egypt.


Why Egypt?

Simply stated, the bibliography of materials pertaining to the health and human biology of ancient Egypt is vast. The amount and quality of ancient physical remains from the Nile Valley and their accessibility to scholarship for the last 150 years has prompted an enormous amount of research and publication by archaeologists, scientists, historians, and self-styled specialists. More has appeared about the medicine, pathology, and biology of ancient Egypt than that of any other pre-classical civilization. It is through the specific study of ancient Egyptian medicine, palaeopathology, and health-related issues that we learn much about the health of early man in general--his variant approaches to curing illness and the invention of formalized medical therapy before the Greeks. Without belittling the medical evidence from Mesopotamia, China and South America, it is from Egypt--of all the pre-classical civilizations--that a critical mass of all the necessary kinds of evidence (textual, biological, artifactual, architectural, etc.) survives in such quantity and combines together, enabling us to formulate a coherent understanding of early man's health, clinical practices, and beliefs.

The consistently hot and dry desert climate of the Nile Valley has facilitated the preservation of substantial numbers of human remains throughout the millennia. Beginning from at least 10,000 B.C. (the Qada Culture) and ensuing through Late Antiquity, these remains survive either as mummified corpses or unmummified skeletal material, most of which is appropriate for pathological study.

The Egyptian environment is also conducive to the preservation of medically-related architecture and artifacts. Archaeology has identified healing centers and sanatoria (e.g., Dendera and Deir el-Bahari), and it has strongly inferred the existence of temple-based establishments for training physician-priests (viz., "Houses of Life"). Surgical tools and instruments survive that can be studied and analyzed (scalpels, probes, tweezers, etc.), as do textual materials inscribed on a variety of organic and inorganic media. These medical texts include the autobiographies of physicians and their working manuals. Significant numbers of Egyptian papyri and inscriptions endure containing elaborate medical treatises that describe symptoms, aetiologies, treatments, prescriptions, and pharmacopoeia.

A plethora of related religious texts allows us to understand, to a fair degree, how closely Egyptian religious belief and cult were interwoven with medical practice. As a result of new interpretations, we are only now coming to recognize the full extent to which so-called empirical medical practices were indivisibly combined with magico-religious rituals in Egypt, forming what was almost certainly a single integrated therapy.[1] In addition, a fair number of second-hand accounts and descriptions of Egyptian medicine written by Greek and Roman authors have survived. These accounts permit comparison with the Egyptian materials, allowing us to understand the extent to which the Greeks were and were not influenced by the Egyptians in their ultimate invention of true scientific medicine.

Clearly, the depth, breadth and scope of the surviving medical and pathological evidence from Egypt is greater than that of any other pre-classical culture or civilization, a fact which makes Egypt the ideal source for studying early man's physical health and the invention of medical therapies.


Scope and Use of the Bibliography

Currently, there is no single comprehensive or interdisciplinary bibliographical resource available to scholars who are researching health, medical practice, and human biology in ancient Egypt. This bibliography is designed to fill that void. It is a much-needed research tool for scholars and clinicians from a broad variety of disciplines, including: clinical palaeopathologists, medical and scientific historians, traditional historians and archaeologists of ancient Egypt and the Near East, religious historians, papyrologists, human anthropologists, ethnologists, palaeodemographers, palaeobotanists, and modern medical, veterinary, and pharmaceutical researchers. With easy access to such a detailed classified bibliography that is comprehensive in scope, modern medical researchers could find knowledge of Egyptian therapies, pharmacology and healing approaches, as well as biological conditions, useful to their studies.

However, despite the comprehensive nature of this bibliography (and the broad scope of its subject-classifications), we do not intend it as the ultimate bibliographical resource for the Egyptologist, historian, or medical anthropologist and clinical researcher. Rather, it should be viewed as a first source, i.e., a first stop in the bibliographical literature for researchers and students investigating the topics of Egyptian health, medicine, biology, and anthropology.

In addition to the usual parameters (i.e., author(s), title, keyword, date, series, etc.), an important key to searching topics in this database are the discrete subject headings associated with each bibliographical entry, e.g.:

Alicandri-Ciufelli, C. "Paléoanatomie et paléopathologie crânienne cervicale oto-rhino-laryngologique des anciens Égyptiens [Cervico-Facial and Otorhinolaryngoiatrical Paleoanatomy and Paleopathology in Ancient Egypt]." Medicina nei Secoli 6 (1994): 87-116.
[Akhenaten; Anatomy--Ancient Conceptions and Notions; Anatomy--Ears; Anatomy--Head; Anatomy--Lexical Studies; Anatomy--Nose; Anatomy--Skulls and Crania; Diseases and Conditions--Bone; Diseases and Conditions--Cancer; Diseases and Conditions--Deafness; Diseases and Conditions--Pituitary; Diseases and Conditions--Tetanus; Medical Texts and Papyri; Medicine--Foreign Connections--Greek and Roman; Medicine--Procedures; Mummies; Oto-Laryngology; Palaeopathology--Radiological Studies; Papyrus Ebers; Papyrus Edwin Smith; Religion and Magic; Specialism, Ancient; Surgery].

These subject headings are the basis for locating specific subjects and contexts in the literature (for a list of the subjects, see below), and all records can be searched by the headings, e.g.:

DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)
[1396]Ablin, R., Gonder, M. J., Immerman, R. S. "AIDS: A Disease of Ancient Egypt?"

DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ALKAPTONURIA (OCHRONOSIS)
[2035]Stenn, F. J., Milgram, J. W., Lee, S. L., Weigand, R. J., Veis, A. "Biochemical Identification of Homogentisic Acid Pigment in an Ochronotic Egyptian Mummy"
[1329]Wallgren, J. E., Caple, R., Aufderheide, A. C. "Contribution of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies to the Question of Alkaptonuria (Ochronosis) in an Egyptian Mummy"
[1350]Wells, C., Maxwell, B. M. "Alkaptonuria in an Egyptian Mummy"
DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--BLINDNESS
[1924]Brunner, H. "Blindheit"
[2408]Engelmann, H., Hallof, J. "Zur medizinischen Nothilfe und Unfallversorgung auf staatlichen Arbeitsplaetzen im alten Aegypten. [On Emergency Medical Assistance and Accident Provision on State Jobs in Ancient Egypt]"
[463]Fuchs, J. "Der Blinde Harfner: Eine medinische Betrachtung ueber aegyptische Kunstwerke"
[464]Fuchs, J. "Blinde Saenger und Harfner im Alten Aegypten"
[465]Fuchs, J. "Physical Alterations Which Occur in the Blind and are Illustrated on Ancient Egyptian Works of Art"
[688]Jantzen, G. "Der blinde Harfner aus dem Grabrelief des Paatenemheb: eine fruehe kuensterlische Darstellung der Arteriitis temporalis?"
[2213]Lipinska, J. "'Blinded' Deities from the Temple of Tuthmosis III at Deir el-Bahari"
[2163]Manniche, L. "Symbolic Blindness"
[2390]Westendorf, W. "Augeneinlagen"

To mount a comprehensive search of the database, researchers must be as inclusive as possible when choosing their subject headings, even to the point of redundancy. In addition to the more discrete subject headings, they should also search generalized related categories.While in the future every pertinent medical reference may be included in the database, even then we cannot guarantee to have catalogued all of them according to every possible discrete subject heading. Researchers will have to do a significant amount of culling for themselves. Happily, this bibliography gives them the place to start and more.


A Work in Progress

This project is still a work in progress. Despite its present size and scope, the bibliography is not yet complete, nor does it claim any measure of completion at the present time. However, it is only a matter of time until the bibliography does include all pertinent citations on the subject matter. Much work still remains to be done, not only in adding new entries to the database, but also of checking and verifying many of those already entered. Certain of the entries added to the database have not yet been viewed directly by the editor. Others require completion, correction, or revision. We are still currently engaged in adding retroactively the Latin designations in the Linnaean System for the botanical entries, as well as the latinized designations for various diseases and syndromes. One constant concern is the extent to which the numerous subject-classifications in the database are standardized and kept consistent with each other, as well as made pertinent to the diverse research interests of the social and medical sciences and the humanities.

In a similar vein, the form of the electronic database should also be viewed as under development. It is constantly undergoing alteration and refinement. These refinements represent improvements in the manner in which the material is organized in the database; how the various fields are envisioned, indexed, and sorted; how search-parameters are formulated, reports formatted, etc.

At present, we estimate that the completed bibliography will ultimately contain over 7,000 citations. What constitutes completion? For our purposes: everything from 1676 to an arbitrarily established date.[2] However, we will not establish that date until we have a reasonable certainty of already cataloguing everything up to that year or the year before. Ultimately, the electronic database will be published on computer disk (probably in a CD-ROM format). Included will be its search engine, INMAGIC RUN-TIME®, which is the read-only, run-time version of INMAGIC DB/TEXTBASE®, running in Microsoft Windows®.[3] A paper-edition--as a hard copy of the database (necessarily more expensive than the digital version)--would also be published with detailed lists of cross-references and concordances to permit full manual searching. Periodically thereafter, additions and updates to the bibliography would appear for distribution.



NOTES:

[1] Gone are antiquated notions, such as, three different types of individuals practiced their own mutually exclusive brands of medicine, i.e., the empirically rational physician (zuwnu), the priest (e.g., the w`ab-priest of Sakhmet), and the magician (zauwty). Now we realize that all Egyptian physicians were priests, and they all integrated religious materials and methods completely into their procedures and nostrums as a single therapy.

[2] The bibliography commences with Fr. Athanasius Kircher's seminal publication on Egyptian mummies, Sphinx mystagoga, sive Diatribe hieroglyphica . . . (Amsterdam, 1676), as the starting point of a modern approach to the study of Egyptian mortal remains.

[3] Currently, the bibliographical database is optimized to work only in INMAGIC DB/TEXTBASE®. At present, there are no plans to make a specific search engine available to work in the Apple Operating System® or on the Apple Computer© platform. However, ASCII Text files of the database could be provided for importing into flat-file databases in the Apple© environment.


Classified Bibliographical Database
of Ancient Egyptian Medicine
and Medical Practice

List of Subject Headings

The numeral before each subject heading denotes the number of records catalogued in the database according to that subject (as of 1997). Cross-reference notations are denoted by an asterisk (*) and blue color. There are a total number of 579 effective subject keys listed in the database not including the cross-reference notations. All subjects refer to pharaonic Egypt unless noted otherwise.

2	ABD EL-RAHMAN, ISMAIL
50	AETIOLOGY
*	AGING see: GERIATRICS AND AGING
2	AHMOSE I
27	AKHENATEN
1	ALPIN, PROSPER
*	AMARNA PERIOD see: AKHENATEN; AMENHOTEP III; SMENKHKARE;
	 TIYE (QUEEN); TUTANKHAMUN
1	AMENEMOPET (KING)
2	AMENHOTEP II
3	AMENHOTEP III
7	AMENHOTEP, SON OF HAPU
*	AMULET-MAKER see: PHYSICIANS (PROFESSION); RELIGION AND MAGIC
*	AMULETS see: RELIGION AND MAGIC
3	AMUN
1	ANATOMY
105	ANATOMY--ANCIENT CONCEPTIONS AND NOTIONS
5	ANATOMY--ANUS
1	ANATOMY--ARM
4	ANATOMY--BILE
21	ANATOMY--BLOOD
20	ANATOMY--BONE
1	ANATOMY--BONE MARROW
15	ANATOMY--BRAIN
3	ANATOMY--BREASTS
1	ANATOMY--BUTTOCKS
21	ANATOMY--EARS
57	ANATOMY--EYES
10	ANATOMY--FEET AND LEGS
3	ANATOMY--FINGERS
4	ANATOMY--FOETUS
1	ANATOMY--FORAMEN MAGNUM
3	ANATOMY--GENERAL
1	ANATOMY--GLANDS
25	ANATOMY--HAIR
9	ANATOMY--HANDS
2	ANATOMY--HEAD
39	ANATOMY--HEART
1	ANATOMY--HIP
2	ANATOMY--INTESTINES
24	ANATOMY--JAW
1	ANATOMY--KIDNEYS
3	ANATOMY--KNEES
45	ANATOMY--LEXICAL STUDIES
1	ANATOMY--LIPS
6	ANATOMY--LIVER
7	ANATOMY--LUNGS
3	ANATOMY--MAXILLA
19	ANATOMY--MOUTH
4	ANATOMY--MUCOUS
1	ANATOMY--NECK
11	ANATOMY--NOSE
33	ANATOMY--PENIS
7	ANATOMY--PLACENTA
1	ANATOMY--PREMAXILLA
3	ANATOMY--PUS
4	ANATOMY--SALIVA
1	ANATOMY--SALIVARY GLANDS
2	ANATOMY--SCROTUM AND TESTICLES (TESTES)
11	ANATOMY--SEMEN
1	ANATOMY--SINUS
5	ANATOMY--SKELETON
31	ANATOMY--SKIN
121	ANATOMY--SKULLS AND CRANIA
21	ANATOMY--SPINE
6	ANATOMY--STOMACH
77	ANATOMY--TEETH
2	ANATOMY--THROAT
9	ANATOMY--THYROID GLAND
1	ANATOMY--TONGUE
2	ANATOMY--UMBILICAL CORD
14	ANATOMY--UTERUS
4	ANATOMY--VAGINA
10	ANATOMY--VASCULAR SYSTEM
1	ANATOMY--VOMIT
3	ANATOMY--VULVA
1	ANTHROPOMETRY
1	ANUBIS
1	ANUKIS
2	APOPHIS
98	ART--MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS
5	ASCLEPIUS
1	ATUM
2	AYE
3	BALANOS (ISHED) TREE (BALANITES AEGYPTIACA L.)
13	BANDAGES
1	BASTET
*	BEER see: DIET AND NUTRITION--BREAD AND BEER-MAKING
2	BENTRESH STELA
27	BES
13	BIBLIOGRAPHIES
*	BIRTH CONTROL see: OBSTETRICS, GYNAECOLOGY AND CONTRACEPTION
1	BIRTH PAVILION
*	BODY ART see: TATOOING
2	BODY HEAT
3	BRUCE, JAMES
2	CADUCEUS
9	CARDIOLOGY
9	CASTRATION
1	CATHETER
2	CEDAR TREE
*	CHILDREN see: PEDIATRICS
1	CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA, ST.
3	CLEOPATRA VII
2	COLOR PERCEPTION
*	COMPUTER-AIDED TEMOGRAPHY (CAT-SCAN) see:
	 PALAEOPATHOLOGY--RADIOLOGICAL STUDIES
*	CONTRACEPTION see: OBSTETRICS, GYNAECOLOGY AND CONTRACEPTION
49	CRANIOLOGY
1	CYPRESS TREE
*	DATES (FRUIT) see: PHARMACOPOEIA--DATE-PALM TREE
*	DEATH AND DYING see: MORTALITY AND DEATH; MURDER; SUICIDE
3	DECAPITATION
4	DEIR EL BAHARI
97	DENTISTRY AND DENTAL HEALTH
14	DENTISTRY AND DENTAL HEALTH--ORAL SURGERY
2	DENTISTRY AND DENTAL HEALTH--TOOTH EXTRACTION
14	DERMATOLOGY
88	DIET AND NUTRITION
47	DIET AND NUTRITION--BREAD AND BEER MAKING
6	DIET AND NUTRITION--CANNIBALISM
5	DIET AND NUTRITION--DIETARY LAWS
6	DIET AND NUTRITION--FISH
12	DIET AND NUTRITION--MILK
7	DIET AND NUTRITION--PORK
1	DIET AND NUTRITION--SPICES
1	DIET AND NUTRITION--WATER
11	DIET AND NUTRITION--WINE
97	DISABILITIES AND DEFORMITIES
*	DISEASE (GENERAL) see: NOSOLOGY AND DISEASES
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ACNE
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY
	 SYNDROME (AIDS)
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ALKAPTONURIA (OCHRONOSIS)
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ALLERGY
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--AMBLYOPIA
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ANEMIA
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ARTERIOSCLEROSIS
17	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ARTHRITIS AND SPONDYLITIS
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ASTHMA
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--ATHEROSCLEROSIS
5	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--BLEEDING (HEMORRHAGE)
9	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--BLINDNESS
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--BODY LICE
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--BOIL
16	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--BONE
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--BREASTS
26	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--BROKEN BONES AND FRACTURES
22	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CANCER
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CARCINOMA
7	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CARDIO-VASCULAR
14	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CARIES
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CHOKING
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CHOLESTEATOMA
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CHRONIC OTITIS MEDEA
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CLUB FOOT (TALIPES EQUINOVARUS)
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--COLD
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CRIBRA ORBITALIA
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--CYST
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--DEAFNESS
49	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--DENTAL
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--DIABETES
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--DISLOCATION
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--DOWN SYNDROME
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--DYSENTARY
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--EARACHE
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--EARS
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--EPILEPSY
23	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--EYES
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--FEET AND LEGS
5	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--FEVER
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--FILARIASIS (WORMS)
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GALLSTONES
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GASTROINTESTINAL
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GIGANTISM
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GLAUCOMA
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GOITER
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GONORRHOEA
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GOUT
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GUMS
26	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GYNAECOLOGICAL
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--GYNECOMASTIA
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HARRIS BANDS
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HEADACHE
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HEMORRHOIDS
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HERNIA
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HERPES
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HERPES--GENITAL
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HIP DYSPLASIA
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HYDROCEPHALUS
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HYPOPLASIA
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--HYSTERIA (WANDERING UTERUS)
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--INFERTILITY
5	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--KYPHOSIS
9	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--LEPROSY
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--LEUCORRHOEA
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--LIVER CIRRHOSIS
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--MALARIA
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--MASTOID DISEASE
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--METATARSAL DEFECT
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--MISCARRIAGE
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--MISCELLANEOUS
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--MUTISM
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--MYELOMA MULTIPLEX
11	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--NOMENCLATURE
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--NOSE
5	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--OBESITY
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--OCCUPATIONAL DISORDERS
5	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--OPHTHALMIA
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--OSTEOLYTIC METASTATIC CARCINOMA
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--OSTEOMYELITIS
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--OSTEOPOROSIS
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--OSTEOSARCOMA
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--PAIN
5	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--PARALYSIS
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--PERITONITIS
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--PHARYNX
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--PHLEBITIS
5	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--PITUITARY
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--PLAGUE
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--POLIOMYELITIS
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--RECTAL
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--RECTAL PROLAPSE
5	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--RESPIRATORY
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--RHEUMATISM
16	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SCHISTOSOMIASIS (BILHARZIA)
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SCOLIOSIS
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SCURVY
4	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE
14	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SKIN
5	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SMALLPOX
31	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SNAKE BITE AND STINGS
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SPINA BIFIDA
13	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--STARVATION AND MALNUTRITION
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--STEATOPYGIA
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--STERILITY
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--STONES (CALCULI)
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--STUTTERING
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SYMMERS FIBROSIS
6	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--SYPHILIS
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--TETANUS
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--THROMBOSIS
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--TRACHEOSTOMY
3	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--TRACHOMA
17	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--TUBERCULOSIS
12	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--TUMORS
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--TYPHOID
1	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--URINARY
2	DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--WILSON BANDS
5	DISMEMBERMENT (POST-MORTEM)
2	DJEDKARE-ISESI (KING)
*	DNA (CLONING) see: MOLECULAR ANTHROPOLOGY
*	DOCTORS see: PHYSICIANS (PROFESSION)
*	DREAMS AND DREAMING see: PSYCHOLOGY--DREAMS AND DREAMING
*	DRUGS see: individual pharmacological agents and drugs
	 under PHARMACOPOEIA--
1	DUAU (DEITY)
46	DWARFS AND DWARFISM
1	EBERS, GEORG
1	EMERGENCY MEDICINE (FIRST AID)
12	ENDOCRINOLOGY
*	EPIDEMICS see: EPIDEMIOLOGY; NOSOLOGY AND DISEASES
3	EPIDEMIOLOGY
3	ETHICS, MEDICAL
78	ETHNOLOGY--1945 AND LATER
104	ETHNOLOGY--PRE-1945
1	EVISCERATION
156	EXCAVATED HUMAN REMAINS
12	EXCEREBRATION
*	FACIAL RECONSTRUCTION see: PALAEOPATHOLOGY--FORENSIC STUDIES
10	FAMINE
1	FLAYING AND SKINNING (POST-MORTEM)
*	FOOD see: DIET AND NUTRITION
3	FORENSIC MEDICINE
1	GALEN
5	GASTROENTEROLOGY
1	GEB
6	GENETICS
23	GERIATRICS AND AGING
*	GERONTOLOGY see: GERIATRICS AND AGING
*	GROOMING, PERSONAL see: HYGIENE AND SANITATION
1	HAPY
6	HATHOR
3	HATSHEPSUT
48	HEALING STATUES (CIPPI)
16	HEMATOLOGY
4	HEPATOLOGY
1	HERMES TRISMEGISTUS
1	HEROPHILUS
2	HERPETOLOGY
32	HISTOLOGY
32	HISTORIOGRAPHY
*	HISTORY OF MEDICINE see: topics under the various headings
	  of MEDICINE--
*	HOMOSEXUALITY see: SEXUALITY AND REPRODUCTION
45	HORUS
*	HOSPITALS see: SANATORIA
17	HOUSE OF LIFE
94	HUMAN ANTHROPOLOGY
*	HUNGER see: DIET AND NUTRITION; DISEASES AND
	 CONDITIONS--STARVATION AND MALNUTRITION; FAMINE
31	HYGIENE AND SANITATION
5	HYGIENE AND SANITATION--GREEK AND ROMAN
*	IMHOTEP see: PHYSICIANS (IMHOTEP)
3	IMMUNOLOGY
9	INCEST
14	ISIS
1	JUNG, C. G.
1	KARNAK TEMPLE
1	KHEPRI
3	KHONSU
*	KILLING see: MORTALITY AND DEATH; MURDER; SUICIDE
*	KUSH see: NUBIA
95	LEXICAL STUDIES
4	LOTUS
1	MAAT
2	MAFDET
*	MAGIC SPELLS see: RELIGION AND MAGIC
12	MAGIC WANDS (APOTROPAEIA)
*	MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) see:
	 PALAEOPATHOLOGY--RADIOLOGICAL STUDIES
290	MEDICAL TEXTS AND PAPYRI
67	MEDICINE, ANCIENT
1	MEDICINE--ASTRONOMY
56	MEDICINE--COPTIC ERA
17	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS
5	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS--AFRICA
26	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS--ARABIC AND EGYPTIAN
12	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS--EUROPE
117	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS--GREEK AND ROMAN
20	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS--HEBREW
2	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS--HINDU
1	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS--HITTITE
3	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS--MESOPOTAMIA
9	MEDICINE--FOREIGN CONNECTIONS--WESTERN ASIA
178	MEDICINE (GENERAL)
25	MEDICINE--PROCEDURES
11	MEDICINE--SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS
1	MEKHENTYIRTY (DEITY)
1	MENKET (GODDESS)
5	MENSTRUATION
1	MERETSEGER
6	MERNEPTAH
2	MESKHENET (GODDESS)
8	METTERNICH STELA
5	MIN
9	MOLECULAR ANTHROPOLOGY
26	MORTALITY AND DEATH
411	MUMMIES
201	MUMMIFICATION
2	MUMMIFICATION--CATS
1	MURDER
2	MUT
17	MUTILATION
1	MUTNEDJMET (QUEEN)
*	NARCOTICS see: PHARMACOPOEIA--PSYCHOACTIVE AGENTS
	 AND NARCOTICS
1	NEFERTEM
1	NEITH
1	NEMTY (DEITY)
5	NEUROLOGY
57	NOSOLOGY AND DISEASES
140	NUBIA
3	NURSING
2	NUT (GODDESS)
179	OBSTETRICS, GYNAECOLOGY AND CONTRACEPTION
*	OLD AGE see: GERIATRICS AND AGING
1	OLFACTION
5	OLIVE TREE (OLEA EUROPAEA L.)
1	ONCOLOGY
51	OPHTHALMOLOGY
33	ORTHOPEDICS
8	OSIRIS
32	OSTEOLOGY
1	OSTRACON NEW YORK 12.180.79
23	OTO-LARYNGOLOGY
1	PÄÄBO, SVANTE
192	PALAEOBOTANY AND MEDICINAL PLANTS
30	PALAEODEMOGRAPHY
402	PALAEOPATHOLOGY
10	PALAEOPATHOLOGY--DNA STUDIES
17	PALAEOPATHOLOGY--FORENSIC STUDIES
18	PALAEOPATHOLOGY--KINSHIP STUDIES
6	PALAEOPATHOLOGY--PHYSICAL STATURE
108	PALAEOPATHOLOGY--RADIOLOGICAL STUDIES
9	PAPYRUS (CYPERUS PAPYRUS L.)
1	PAPYRUS BERLIN 10456 (PAPYRUS RUBENSOHN)
1	PAPYRUS BERLIN 3027
11	PAPYRUS BERLIN 3038
4	PAPYRUS BORGIA
2	PAPYRUS BROOKLYN MUSEUM 47.218.58 + 85
1	PAPYRUS BROOKLYN MUSEUM 47.218.156
2	PAPYRUS BULAQ 3
4	PAPYRUS CARLSBERG VIII
1	PAPYRUS CARLSBERG 13 + 14
1	PAPYRUS CARLSBERG 67
1	PAPYRUS CARLSBERG 203
6	PAPYRUS CHASSINAT (IFAO COPTIC MEDICAL PAPYRUS)
4	PAPYRUS CHESTER BEATTY VI
1	PAPYRUS CHESTER BEATTY XI
67	PAPYRUS EBERS
42	PAPYRUS EDWIN SMITH
13	PAPYRUS EL-LAHUN (KAHUN)
8	PAPYRUS HEARST
1	PAPYRUS HEIDELBERG 1686
6	PAPYRUS LEIDEN 348
1	PAPYRUS LEIDEN 350
1	PAPYRUS LEIDEN 1343 + 1345
3	PAPYRUS LEIDEN I 383
3	PAPYRUS LEIDEN I 384
6	PAPYRUS LONDON (BRITISH MUSEUM 10059)
3	PAPYRUS LONDON (BRITISH MUSEUM 10070)
2	PAPYRUS LOUVRE 5158
1	PAPYRUS LOUVRE E 4864
2	PAPYRUS MICHIGAN INV. 3724
1	PAPYRUS OXYRHYNCHUS 234
1	PAPYRUS OXYRHYNCHUS 1796
1	PAPYRUS OXYRHYNCHUS 3654
2	PAPYRUS RAMESSEUM
1	PAPYRUS RAMESSEUM III
1	PAPYRUS RAMESSEUM IV
2	PAPYRUS RAMESSEUM V
1	PAPYRUS SORBONNE II 69
1	PAPYRUS TEBTUNIS II 67
2	PAPYRUS TURIN 1993
1	PAPYRUS TURIN 1995 + 1996
1	PAPYRUS VIENNA 3873
3	PAPYRUS VIENNA D.6257
1	PAPYRUS VIENNA ERZHERZOG RAINER
1	PAPYRUS VIENNA K5504
1	PAPYRUS VIENNA K5506
1	PAPYRUS VIENNA K5595
1	PAPYRUS WELLCOME EG. MS. 1
1	PAPYRUS YALE INV. 2004
11	PATAIKOS
22	PEDIATRICS
1	PEPI II
3	PERFUME CONES
4	PESESHET (PHYSICIAN)
*	PERSONALITY see: PSYCHOLOGY
168	PHARMACOLOGY
102	PHARMACOPOEIA
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--ABSINTH
5	PHARMACOPOEIA--ACACIA TREE (ACACIA NILOTICA)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--ALGAE
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--ALOE (ALOE VERA L.)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--ALUM
8	PHARMACOPOEIA--APHRODISIACS
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--ARSENIC
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--ASA FOETIDA
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--BAT
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--BEER
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--BINDWEED (CONVOLVULUS)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--BITUMEN
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--BLACK HELLEBORE (RHIZOMA HELLEBORE NIGRI)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--BLOOD
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--BORAGE PLANT (BORAGO OFFICINALIS)
6	PHARMACOPOEIA--CASTOR OIL
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--CELERY
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--COCAINE
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--CORIANDER (CORIANDRUM SATIVA L.)
3	PHARMACOPOEIA--CUMIN (CUMIN CYMINUM L.)
3	PHARMACOPOEIA--DATE-PALM TREE (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--DOM-PALM TREE (HYPHAENE THEBAICA)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--EGGS
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--EXCREMENT
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--FENUGREEK (TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM)
3	PHARMACOPOEIA--FIG
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--FISH
4	PHARMACOPOEIA--FRANKINCENSE
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--FUNGUS (PENNICILLIUM)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--GALBANUM (PEUCEDANUM GALBANIFLORUM)
4	PHARMACOPOEIA--GALENA
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--GARLIC
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--GARUM (FISH SAUCE)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--GRAPES (VITIS VINIFERA)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--HEMATITE
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--HENBANE (HYOSCAMUS MUTICUS)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--HENNA (LAWSONIA INERMIS)
7	PHARMACOPOEIA--HONEY
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--IODINE
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--IVY (HEDERA HELIX L.)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--KATT (CATHA EDULIS)
6	PHARMACOPOEIA--KOHL
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--KYPHI
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--LADANUM CISTUS
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--LEAD
6	PHARMACOPOEIA--LETTUCE (LACTUCA)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--LICHEN
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--LINSEED OIL
18	PHARMACOPOEIA--LOTUS
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--MALACHITE
9	PHARMACOPOEIA--MANDRAKE (MANDRAGORA OFFICINARUM L.)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--MERCURY
3	PHARMACOPOEIA--MILK
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--MINT
4	PHARMACOPOEIA--MORINGA TREE OIL
3	PHARMACOPOEIA--MOUSE
8	PHARMACOPOEIA--MYRRH (COMMIPHORA ABYSSINICA)
5	PHARMACOPOEIA--NATRON
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--NICOTINE
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--OCHRE
45	PHARMACOPOEIA--OIL AND SALVES
6	PHARMACOPOEIA--OLIVE OIL
4	PHARMACOPOEIA--ONION (ALLIUM CEPA)
11	PHARMACOPOEIA--OPIUM (PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L.)
9	PHARMACOPOEIA--PERSEA TREE (MIMUSOPS)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--PINE OIL
28	PHARMACOPOEIA--PSYCHOACTIVE AGENTS AND NARCOTICS
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--PYROLUSITE (MANGANESE DIOXIDE)
4	PHARMACOPOEIA--RAW MEAT
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--SAFFLOWER OIL (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--SALIVA
4	PHARMACOPOEIA--SALT
3	PHARMACOPOEIA--SESAME OIL (SESAMUM INDICUM L.)
4	PHARMACOPOEIA--SILPHIUM
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--SNAIL
5	PHARMACOPOEIA--SOPORIFICS
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--STIBIUM (ANTIMONY)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--STORAX (LIQUIDAMBER ORIENTALIS)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--SWALLOW
6	PHARMACOPOEIA--SYCAMORE TREE (FICUS SYCAMORUS)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--TAR
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--TEREBINTH
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--TESTICLES OF AN ASS
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--TETRACYCLINE
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--THORN APPLE (DATURA STRAMONIUM)
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--TORTOISE
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--URINE
3	PHARMACOPOEIA--WATER
24	PHARMACOPOEIA--WATER LILY
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--WAX
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--WILD BANANA (MUSA ENSETE)
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--WILLOW TREE
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--WINE
1	PHARMACOPOEIA--YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES)
2	PHARMACOPOEIA--ZYZYPHUS TREE
1	PHILAE TEMPLE
34	PHYSICIANS--IMHOTEP
126	PHYSICIANS (PROFESSION)
7	PIG
1	PIGMENTATION
*	PLAGUE see: DISEASES AND CONDITIONS--PLAGUE; EPIDEMIOLOGY;
	 NOSOLOGY AND DISEASES
*	PLANTS see: PALAEOBOTANY AND MEDICINAL PLANTS
*	PREGNANCY see: OBSTETRICS, GYNAECOLOGY AND CONTRACEPTION
6	PROCTOLOGY
1	PSYCHOHISTORY
31	PSYCHOLOGY
9	PSYCHOLOGY--DREAMS AND DREAMING
11	PTAH
2	PUNT (NUBIA)
5	PUNT, QUEEN OF
3	PYGMIES
7	RA
6	RAMESSES II
4	RAMESSES III
1	RAMESSES IV
2	RAMESSES V
1	RAMESSES VI
1	RAMOSE (VIZIER)
3	REJUVENATION
506	RELIGION AND MAGIC
*	RITUAL PURITY see: DIET AND NUTRITION--DIETARY LAWS;
	 HYGIENE AND SANITATION; RELIGION AND MAGIC; TABOO
1	RUTI (DEITY)
2	RYE GRASS (LOLIUM TEMULENTUM)
2	SAFFLOWER PLANT (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.)
13	SAKHMET
7	SANATORIA
1	SANATORIA--ABYDOS
8	SANATORIA--DEIR EL BAHARI
1	SANATORIA--DEIR EL MEDINA
3	SANATORIA--DENDERA
1	SANATORIA--KANOPUS
4	SANATORIA--KARNAK TEMPLE
5	SANATORIA--NORTH SAQQARA (ASKLEPIEION)
1	SANATORIA--SAVARIA (PANNONIA)
*	SCALPELS see: SURGERY--INSTRUMENTS AND TOOLS
4	SCORPION
5	SELKET
9	SENSES
2	SEQENENRE
1	SERAPEUM
1	SESAME PLANT (SESAMUM INDICUM L.)
13	SETH
3	SETY II
83	SEXUALITY AND REPRODUCTION
1	SHESEMU (DEITY)
1	SHESHI (QUEEN)
1	SIPTAH
9	SLEEP
10	SMENKHKARE
1	SMITH, G. ELLIOT
2	SOBEK
1	SOKAR
28	SPECIALISM, ANCIENT
5	SPECIALISM, ANCIENT (GENERAL)
*	SPECIALIZATIONS, MEDICAL see: SPECIALISM
12	STOMATOLOGY
5	SUICIDE
*	SURGEONS see: PHYSICIANS (PROFESSION); SURGERY
39	SURGERY
10	SURGERY--AMPUTATION
1	SURGERY--CAUTERIZATION
21	SURGERY--CIRCUMCISION
4	SURGERY--CLITORECTOMY
19	SURGERY--INSTRUMENTS AND TOOLS
1	SURGERY--SUBINCISION
12	SURGERY--TREPANATION
4	TABOO
3	TATOOING
5	TAWERET (THOERIS)
1	TEFNUT
2	THERMOUTHIS (RENENUTET)
1	THIRST
4	THOTH
1	TIYE (QUEEN)
18	TOXICOLOGY AND POISONS
*	TREPHINATION see: SURGERY--TREPANATION
12	TUTANKHAMUN
2	TUTHMOSIS I
2	TUTHMOSIS II
3	TUTHMOSIS III
3	TUTHMOSIS IV
44	UROLOGY
10	VETERINARY MEDICINE
*	VOCABULARY see: LEXICAL STUDIES; ANATOMY--LEXICAL STUDIES
*	WINE see: DIET AND NUTRITION--WINE; PHARMACOPOEIA--WINE
*	WOMEN see: OBSTETRICS, GYNAECOLOGY AND CONTRACEPTION
*	X-RAY see: PALAEOPATHOLOGY--RADIOLOGICAL STUDIES
*	YOUTH see: PEDIATRICS
		


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