|1071||Battle of Manzikert in Armenia, eastern Anatolia; Byzantine army of Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes defeated by Seljuk Turks under Sultan Alp Arslan. Result is to establish Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and begin successive Turkish conquest of Asia Minor and systematic reduction of Byzantine Empire.|
|1095||Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus petitions Pope Urban II for aid against Muslim Seljuk Turks reducing his territory; Muslim Turks have captured northern Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine--including Jerusalem--from Arab Abbasid Dynasty of Baghdad.|
Reports filter back to Europe of Turks attacking and persecuting Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem; Turks do not follow previous Arab policy of protecting Christian and Jewish populations as dhimmi (Arab., 'protected ones').
|1095-1099||FIRST CRUSADE: Pope Urban II proclaims crusade at Council of Clermont. Peter the Hermit gains fame preaching crusade. Europeans make no distinction between Turks and Arabs; all are "infidels"; they group all eastern enemies under ethnic term "Saracens" (including: Turks, Arabs, Kurds, Persians, Turkomen, Kipchaks, Mamluks, etc.).|
Slaughter of Rhineland Jews: 'Crusaders' under Count Emeco set off for Holy Land, but go on murder spree, massacring Jewish populations in cities of Speyer, Worms, Mainz, and Cologne and plundering possessions; local bishops are helpless to stop it; they attack Christian Hungary but are finally defeated; angry Pope excommunicates entire wayward expedition, which disbands and goes home.
Battle of Cibotas in Asia Minor: ragtag army led by followers of Peter the Hermit defeated by Turks, survivors enslaved.
Four official Crusader armies start out for Palestine led by French and Norman nobility (Franks): Godfrey of Bouillon and his brothers (Eustace and Baldwin of Boulogne), Raymond of Toulouse (Saint-Gilles), Bohemond of Taranto, and Robert of Flanders; Crusaders begin to arrive in Constantinople and collect army of about 35,000 (5,000 knights, 30,000 infantry); they are pressured to pledge loyalty to Emperor Alexius I Comnenus and promise to return conquered lands to Byzantine Empire; emperor will support Crusaders militarily.
|1097||Siege of Nicaea: Crusaders besiege Nicaea, capital of Sultanate of Rûm and defeat Sultan Kilij Arslan I, but Alexius secretly negotiates peaceful surrender of city without plunder or ransom; angry Crusaders become distrustful of emperor.|
Battle of Dorylaeum: Crusaders foil ambush by large Turkish army led by Sultan Kilij Arslan I; victory opens way to Syria; Baldwin of Boulogne accepts lorship of Edessa in southern Asia Minor/northern Syria.
|1098||Count Bohemond and Crusaders capture Antioch; combined Turkish-Arab relief army led by Kerbogha, Atabeg of Mosul, is defeated when Arab leaders abandon him out of distrust. Bohemond claims Antioch for himself in defiance of promise to Emperor Alexius I.|
Arab army of Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt (Shi`ites) captures Jerusalem, expels Seljuk Turks, re-occupies city.
|1099||Siege of Jerusalem (June-July): Crusader army (13,000 troops) marches on Jerusalem led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Eustace of Boulogne, Robert of Flanders, Robert of Normandy, Raymond of Toulouse, and Tancred (later Prince of Galilee and Regent of Antioch). Crusaders besiege Jerusalem 5½ weeks; Fatimid governor expels most Christians; Jerusalem's Jews fight alongside Egyptian and Nubian troops; before final assault, starving thirsty Crusders fast 3 days and process around city walls barefoot in penitence.|
Fall of Jerusalem (July 15): Crusaders breach northeast wall; bloodbath ensues; massacre thousands of Muslims and Jews; synagogues are burned; temple mount is awash in blood; some Saracens and Jews are spared, including Fatimid governor who go free and evacuate to Ascalon. Crusader leaders elect Godfrey as ruler of Jerusalem with title, "Defender of the Holy Sepulcher"; Muslims and Jews are barred from living in city.
Death of Pope Urban II (July 29).
Battle of Ascalon (August): relief army from Egypt is defeated by Crusaders from Jerusalem; most Crusaders now go home, having fulfilled Crusader vows; Crusade ends with foundation of three Crusader states: Kingdom of Jerusalem and Principalities of Edessa and Antioch, and their vassel cities, towns and estates.
|1100-1187||Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: Godfrey dies (1100); brother Baldwin of Edessa elected King of Jerusalem; extends control over coastline with Italian and Norwegian navies; by 1112 Arsuf, Caesarea, Acre, Beirut, and Sidon are captured.|
|1100||Battle of Malatya (Melitene) in eastern Anatolia: Bohemond of Antioch and Taranto defeated by Danishmend Turkoman army, captured, imprisoned 3 years until ransomed by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem; meanwhile nephew Tancred is regent of Antioch.|
|1101||Crusade of 1101: series of mis-coordinated battles and advances of several small European armies crossing Asia Minor to join Crusader states in Syria; each army defeated by Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan I and the Danishmends; some Crusaders reach Antioch by sea and join army of Jerusalem. Victories allow Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm to consolidate itself and establish new capital at Konya.|
Baldwin I captures Arsuf and Caesarea with aid of Genoese navy.
|1104||Baldwin I captures Acre with aid of Genoese navy.|
|1108||Treaty of Devol: defeat of Bohemund of Antioch in war with Byzanium (fought in Europe); Principality of Antioch technically becomes vassal state of Byzantine Empire; Bohemund becomes Byzantine governor, retires to Italy a broken man, dies in 1111. Tancred refuses to recognize treaty.|
|1109||Capture of Tripoli by Crusader army led by Baldwin I; County of Tripoli is created as fourth Crusader state.|
|1110||Crusaders capture Beirut with aid of Genoese navy.|
Sidon is captured with aid of Venetian and Norwegian navies.
|1118||Death of Baldwin I on military expedition to Egypt, succeeded by cousin, Baldwin II.|
|1124||Crusaders capture Tyre with aid of Venetian fleet.|
|1128||Turk Zangi becomes Atabeg of Mosul, governor in Turkish Seljuk Empire, soon establishes himself as independent ruler of northern Mesopotamia and Syria.|
|1131||Death of Baldwin II, succeeded by Fulk of Anjou, husband of Baldwin's daughter, Melisende; ends expansionism and stabilizes frontiers.|
|1143||Death of King Fulk in hunting accident, succeeded by 13-year old son, Baldwin III, with Queen Melisende as regent.|
|1144||Turks under Zangi of Mosul retake Edessa, first Crusader state to fall to Muslim Turks and Arabs.|
|1145||Queen Melisende refuses to step down when son Baldwin III comes of age.|
|1146||Inspired by fall of Edessa (St.) Bernard of Clairvaux preaches new crusade; proclaims for first time that Crusaders receive complete remission of sin from God.|
Death of Zangi, succeeded by son, Nur el-Din, as ruler of Aleppo serving greater Seljuk Empire.
|1147-1149||SECOND CRUSADE: Led by Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III of Germany and King Louis VII of France; crusade collapses into failure due to stubbornness and egotism of leaders, defeats at Dorylaeum, Edessa and Damascus, and their distrust of Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus. However, in Europe, English fleet captures Lisbon from Muslim Moors and returns it to Christian rule.|
|1152||Baldwin III crowns himself sole king to depose mother, Queen Melisende in Jerusalem. Civil war erupts. Baldwin wins and rules alone.|
|1153||King Baldwin III captures Ascalon. Reginald of Chatillon, "newcomer" from Second Crusade, marries widow of Raymond of Antioch and rules as Prince of Antioch until 1161.|
|1154||Nur el-Din occupies Damascus; also controls Aleppo; he is now emir of Syria.|
|1158||Principality of Antioch becomes vassal state of Byzantine Empire; Reginald of Chatillon, ruling Antioch, is besieged and punished by Byzantium for launching attack on Byzantine Cyprus; Antioch comes under protection of Byzantine Empire.|
|1161||Reginald of Chatillon captured and imprisoned in Aleppo for 15 years; deposed as Antiochene ruler.|
|1163||Death of Baldwin III, succeeded by his brother, Amalric of Joppa and Ascalon = Amalric I, who must divorce wife, Agnes of Courtenay, to become king.|
Administrative dispute in Egypt causes King Amalric I to invade Egypt; defeats Egyptians at Battle of Pelusium. They seek aid from Nur el-Din in Syria.
|1164-1165|| Nur el-Din sends Syrian force to Egypt to settle administrative dispute; fearful Egyptians now seek aid from Amalric I, who re-invades Egypt and defeats Syrians at Bilbeis who retreat to Damascus.|
Battle of Harim. With Amalric I in Egypt, Nur el-Din attacks Harim; defeats combined army of Tripoli, Antioch, Byzantines and Armenians; captures most Crusader leaders, including: Raymond III of Tripoli, Bohemund III of Antioch, Joscelin III of Edessa and Byzantine governor; Amalric I abandons Egypt and returns to deal with Nur el-Din.
|1167||Amalric I re-invades Egypt against new force sent by Nur el-Din; captures Alexandria with aid of Italian fleet from Pisa; he cannot hold, so he exacts great tribute and withdraws.|
Amalric I marries Byzantine Princess Maria Comnena, great niece of Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus; their daughter will be Princess Isabella
|1168||Amalric I makes military alliance with Byzantium against Egypt; he invades Egypt, besieges Cairo; Egyptians pay tribute of 2 million gold pieces; Nur el-Din sends relief force to Egypt under Shirkuh, and Amalric I withdraws. Amalric's failure to capture Egypt strengthens Arabs' position and leads to their unification.|
|1169-1192||AYYUBID-CRUSADER WAR: series of intermittent battles fought between Salah el-Din (Saladin) and Crusader states from his rise to power through Battle of Hattin, fall of Jerusalem and THIRD CRUSADE.|
|1169||Shirkuh becomes vizier of Egypt for Nur el-Din; dies same year.|
Nur el-Din appoints Salah el-Din (Saladin), a Kurd, as deputy in Egypt and commander of Syrian troops protecting Egypt from Crusader attack.
|1171||Salah el-Din (Saladin) overthrows Shi`ite Fatimid Dynasty of Egypt; proclaims himself sultan of Egypt under Emir Nur el-Din; enraged Nur el-Din nearly has Salah el-Din (Saladin) executed for rebellion.|
|1174||Death of Nur el-Din, succeeded by Salah el-Din (Saladin); he returns to Damascus, disposes of Nur el-Din's heirs, and becomes emir of Egypt and Syria, founding Ayyubid Dynasty, and uniting into one kingdom Egypt, Syria, parts of Palestine and northern Mesopotamia.|
Death of Amalric I, succeeded by 13-year old son, Baldwin IV, suffering from leprosy. Regency led by mother, Agnes of Courtenay, Raymond III of Tripoli, and other nobles.
Amalric of Lusignan arrives in Jerusalem from Poitou; enrolls in service of Agnes of Courtenay. Younger brother Guy of Lusignan arrives possibly later, if not same time
|Amalric of Lusignan marries Eschiva of Ibelin, daughter of Baldwin of Ramlah.|
|1176||Battle of Myriokephalon: Byzantine army under Emperor Manuel I Comnenus defeated by Seljuk Turks of Sultanate of Rum, led by Sultan Kilij Arslan II; ends Byzantine hopes of recapturing Asia Minor and broad political protection of Crusader states.|
Princess Sibylla, sister of Baldwin IV, marries William of Montferrat, who dies next year. She bears son, Baldwin.
Reginald of Chatillon ransomed and released from Aleppo prison.
|1177||Battle of Montisgard (Mons Gisardi). Sixteen-year old King Baldwin IV (suffering from leprosy) inflicts heavy defeat on Salah el-Din (Saladin). Army commanded by Reginald of Chatillon; included are Balian of Ibelin, his brother Baldwin of Ramlah, Reginald of Sidon, and Joscelin III of Edessa. Salah el-Din (Saladin) only narrowly escapes on fast racing camel back to Egypt. Stunning victory is seen as sign from heaven for young king.|
Balian of Ibelin marries Dowager Queen Maria Comnena, widow of King Amalric I; becomes stepfather to Princess Isabella, her daughter, and half-sister to Princess Sibylla; marks family alliance between Byzantine royal family and Ibelins, who are among wealthiest and most powerful lords in Crusader states.
|1179||Battle of Marj Ayyoun (modern Lebanon): Crusader army under Baldwin IV is defeated by Salah el-Din (Saladin); leprotic king cannot ride--barely escapes capture; among prisoners are Grand Master of Templars and Baldwin of Ramlah. Baldwin is ransomed by Byzantine emperor (as part of family alliance).|
Battle of Jacob's Ford: Salah el-Din (Saladin) defeats force garrisoning fortress under construction at key crossing of Jordan River near Tiberias on road to Syria. 700 soldiers, architects and workers killed, 800 taken prisoner, unfinished structure destroyed.
|1180|| Princess Sibylla, sister of Baldwin IV, marries "newcomer" Guy of Lusignan under pressure of king and her mother, Agnes of Courtenay (who probably having affair with Lusignan's brother, Amalric).|
Salah el-Din allies with Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan II; now rules in name of Seljuks, stabilizing his Seljuk border and freeing his hand with Crusaders.
|1182||Dying Baldwin IV names brother-in-law Guy of Lusignan as regent during his incapacitation.|
|1182-1183||Salah el-Din engages in economic warfare against Kingdom of Jerusalem by launching attacks meant to destroy productive farmlands--to reduce revenues and taxes--to weaken Crusaders' abilities to make and sustain war; intends also to lure great Crusader army into major decisive battle where it can be crushed.|
Battle of Belvoir Castle (1182): series of running engagements between armies of Salah el-Din and Baldwin IV in Galilee; Salah el-Din's coordinated attacks across Syria and Palestine are unsuccessful in goading pitched battle between armies, despite that they array against each other and skirmish; Baldwin IV succeeds in countering his moves, and Salah el-Din retires to Damascus.
Salah el-Din occupies Muslim Aleppo (1183), forcing it into his Ayyubid empire; completes encirclement of Latin states.
Battle of el-Fule (1183): series of coordinated skirmishes by very large Crusader army led by regent Guy of Lusignan against army of Salah el-Din that invades Galilee and northern Palestine, causing heavy damage; Crusaders refuse to be lured into decisive battle or ambush, forcing Salah el-Din to withdraw without capturing territory or damaging Crusader force. Guy is harshly criticized for avoiding battle, but poleins support cautious strategy given Salah el-Din's tactical advantages.
|1183||Baldwin IV arranges marriage of half-sister, 11-year old Princess Isabella, step-daughter of Balian of Ibelin, to 20-year old Humphrey of Toron in order to break Ibelins' influence over princess. He is a polein who supports "newcomers", step-son of Reginald of Chatillon.|
Reginald of Chatillon attacks caravans from Egypt; captures Aqaba and launches piratical raids on Red Sea as springboard for attack on Mecca. Salah el-Din responds by besieging Reginald's castle at el-Kerak (while Humphrey and Isabella are honeymooning there!). Relief army led by leprotic Baldwin IV (carried on stretcher) surprises Salah el-Din before walls of el-Kerak; Salah el-Din abandons siege and withdraws.
Baldwin IV revokes regency of Guy of Lusignan for not responding aggressively enough to Salah el-Din in el-Fule campaign and for allowing Reginald of Chatillon to attack Muslim caravans, jeopardizing peace with Egypt.
Royal court has split into 2 feuding factions, "newcomers" and poleins. "Newcomers" are zealous, aggressive, and ambitious barons who have come from Europe with desire to make war against infidels and capture territory; they are led by Sibylla, Guy and Amalric of Lusignan (brothers) and Reginald of Chatillon. Poleins are native lords and barons born in Palestine and acculturated to Middle East, understand Arabic, Islam and Arab mentality (e.g., Count Raymond III of Tripoli, Balian of Ibelin, Baldwin of Ramlah, Reginald of Sidon, and Joscelin III of Edessa; "newcomers" generally despise poleins as unaggressive, over-assimilated traitors to Crusader cause.
|1185||Truce of 1185. Salah el-Din agrees to truce with Kingdom of Jerusalem and moves to Egypt.|
Salah el-Din signs peace treaty with Byzantine Empire, diplomatically isolating Crusader states.
Dying Baldwin IV, names nephew, Baldwin V, heir--has him crowned co-regent to keep Guy of Lusignan from becoming king; at ceremony Balian carries boy on shoulders, indicating Princess Isabella's family supports her nephew.
Death of Baldwin IV, succeeded by Baldwin V, child borne to king's sister, Sibylla; Count Raymond III of Tripoli (& Tiberias) appointed regent--he might hope to use regency to make himself king.
|1186||Baldwin V dies of leprosy; crisis in royal succession; poleins reject Sibylla and Guy of Lusignan as heirs; propose 14-year old Princess Isabella and husband, Humphrey of Toron, but Humphrey supports Guy; barons offer crown to Sibylla if she divorce Guy and remarry--thinking it be Raymond III of Tripoli; she accepts.|
Sibylla crowned queen of Jerusalem, but she remarries her husband(!) and crowns him king, Guy of Lusignan.
Baldwin of Ramlah does not swear fealty to Guy of Lusignan and exiles himself to Antioch. Balian accepts and becomes military advider to King Guy. Count Raymond of Tripoli opens friendly dialogue with Salah el-Din seeking support to become king; civil war in Crusader states nearly erupts; Raymond permits Salah el-Din's army to camp in his territory.
|1187||Outbreak of War: Reginald of Chatillon (ruler of el-Kerak), breaks Truce of 1185 by attacking Egyptian trade caravan; Salah el-Din proclaims jihad against Latin kingdom; army attacks along northern edge of Latin domains and defeats Crusaders; Raymond of Tripoli allows Salah el-Din to use his territories to attack Crusaders.|
Battle of Cresson (May 1): Salah el-Din's son, el-Afdal, defeats force of Templars and Hospitallers. Raymond vilified for treason and threatened; he rejoins Crusaders in war against Salah el-Din. "Newcomers" distrust him and other poleins, whom they call traitors for counseling King Guy not to engage Salah el-Din directly; poleins advise to await Salah el-Din from superior battle position; King Guy rejects advice, marches against Salah el-Din without sufficient water or preparation. Balian of Ibelin and Joscelin III of Edessa command rear guard.
Battle of Hattin (July 4): Salah el-Din surrounds and annihilates main Crusader army; captures and imprisons King Guy and Templar Grand Master; executes Reginald of Chatillon, 200 Templars and Hospitallers, and other prisoners; only Raymond of Tripoli, Joscelin III of Edessa, Balian of Ibelin, and few others escape battle through hole in enemy lines (Arab sources say Salah el-Din allows them to escape); Salah el-Din permits Balian and family to pass into Jerusalem. Within 3 months, Salah el-Din captures most Crusader strongholds in Galilee and northern Palestine, including: Tiberias, Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nablus, Jaffa, and Ascalon.
Conrad of Montferrat, (King Baldwin V's uncle) lands at Tyre with small army; claims throne of Jerusalem; establishes himself and fights off attack by Salah el-Din.
Siege and Fall of Jerusalem. Salah el-Din besieges Jerusalem (September), commanded by Balian of Ibelin; he organizes desperate defenses; negotiates with Salah el-Din; defenders rather kill themselves and their prisoners, and burn city than fall by force; after 50-day siege, Salah el-Din agrees to peaceful surrender (November); spares lives of Christians and ransoms most of them; allows them to evacuate to coast.
Count Raymond of Tripoli returns to Tripoli, dies of "broken heart"; succeeded by Prince of Antioch, uniting 2 territories as Antioch-Tripoli.
|1188||Salah el-Din ransoms King Guy of Jerusalem and releases him. Guy returns and puts Acre under long siege; Conrad of Montferrat (supported by Balian of Ibelin and poleins) refuses to recognize Guy as king; Salah el-Din cannot break siege; disease and famine break out among Crusaders (1190-1191).|
|1189-1192||THIRD CRUSADE, "Crusade of Kings": Salah el-Din is worn down and fought to a standstill by Richard I (Lion-heart); Richard recaptures much of Palestine from Salah el-Din, but fails to recover Jerusalem, for which Crusade is ultimately unsuccessful, despite his many victories.|
|1189||New armies and fleets of Third Crusade depart England, France, Sicily, Germany and eastern Europe for Palestine.|
|1190||Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany drowns leading an army of 50,000 in Asia Minor; most of his army turns around and goes home.|
|1191||Queen Sibylla dies of disease at Acre; Guy loses claim to throne; Sibylla's half-sister, Princess Isabella, is convinced by Balian and Maria Comnena to annul existing marriage to Humphrey of Toron and marry Conrad of Montferrat to support his claim to throne (as Baldwin V's uncle); Humphrey is challenged to duel to keep wife; he refuses (has reputation for being weak and effeminate). Isabella's marriage annulled based on being underage at that time (11 yrs.); she marries Conrad.|
Military campaign of Guy and Conrad against Salah el-Din at Acre is stalemated; no progress.
Fall of Acre: French army under King Philip Augustus arrives at Acre, renews stalemated siege; 6 weeks later Richard I (Lion-heart) and army land and attack; Salah el-Din cannot lift siege; 1 month later Acre surrenders; Richard offends King Philip and Duke Leopold V of Austria, when he tears down their banners; King Philip returns to France. Arab prisoners of war held for ransom--to be exchanged for prisoners held by Salah el-Din.
Salah el-Din fails to pay ransom on time; Richard beheads all 2,700 Arab prisoners in full view of Arab army; Salah el-Din responds by massacring most Crusader prisoners; later Richard defeats Salah el-Din severely at battle of Arsuf.
Richard supports Guy of Lusignan for king of Jerusalem against Conrad of Montferrat (since Guy is actually Richard's vassal from Poitou!); Richard detests poleins who support Conrad.
|1192||Richard I recaptures Joppa (Jaffa) and Ascalon and reestablishes Crusader control of coast. Balian of Ibelin commands Richard's rear guard at Battle of Joppa. Twice Richard leads Crusader army to Jerusalem but withdraws; he can take city, but cannot hold it; Salah el-Din's army is exhausted; Richard must return home to deal with political crises there; both weary and sick, they begin truce negotiations through Salah el-Din's brother, el-Adil.|
Treaty of Ramlah between Richard I and Salah el-Din; end of war; Balian of Ibelin helps negotiate treaty. Arabs keep Jerusalem; Crusaders keep coastal cities south of Joppa (Jaffa); Ascalon returned to Arabs; Christian pilgrims granted free and safe access to Jerusalem.
Franks establish "Second Kingdom" of Jerusalem at Acre; Richard I reluctantly recognizes Conrad of Montferrat as King of Jerusalem-Acre; Guy of Lusignan becomes governor of Cyprus.
Salah el-Din compensates Balian of Ibelin for loss of estates with gift of castle of Caymont and areas near Acre; he now rules under Salah el-Din's authority.
Richard I sails home, and almost immediately, Conrad of Montferrat is murdered by Assassins (Hashishiin)-sect of Islam (Richard is suspected); Conrad succeeded by Henry II of Champagne, married to Queen Isabella; Richard is shipwrecked near Venice and captured by Duke Leopold of Austria, imprisoned by German Emperor Henry VI for heavy ransom of 150,000 Marks.
|1193||Death of Salah el-Din on March 3 in Damascus due to exhaustion; by this time, he has given away all his wealth and dies penniless; his Ayyubid successors maintain truce with Franks; Arab unity is weakened by infighting among his successors.|
Death of Balian of Ibelin (in his 50's) at his castle of Caymont.
|1194||Death of Guy of Lusignan, governor of Cyprus; succeeded by brother, Amalric II of Lusignan, who is crowned King of Cyprus as vassal of German emperor.|
|1197||Death of King Henry (of Champagne) of Jerusalem-Acre in accident; succeeded by Amalric II, king of Cyprus, who rules 2 realms separately, Cyprus and Jerusalem-Acre; marries Queen Isabella (previously wife of Humphrey of Toron, Conrad of Montferrat, and King Henry (of Champagne)); deals wisely with Salah el-Din's brother, Malik el-Adil, Sultan of Egypt|
|1202-1204||FOURTH CRUSADE, "Crusade that Went Awry": last of major crusades; Crusader army diverted to Constantinople, which is ultimately attacked, captured and sacked by Crusaders acting for Venetians (enemies and competitors of Byzantines); ends in establishment of 'Latin Empire' (1204) there, which permanently alienates Greek Christians from Latin West.|
|1205||Death of Amalric II; succeeded by son, Hugh, in Cyprus and wife Queen Isabella in Jerusalem-Acre; Isabella dies same year and is succeeded by her daughter, Marie of Montferrat (daughter of Conrad).|
|1210||Queen Marie of Jerusalem-Acre marries John of Brienne, now crowned king.|
|1212||"Children's Crusade": unnofficial crusade movement from May to September; thousands of adolescents, including old folks, poor, peasants, women, etc., march from Germany and France to Italian coast hoping to travel to Holy Land and liberate Jerusalem; ends in failure; many children sold into slavery; however its religious fervor helps initiate Fifth Crusade.|
|1216-1221||FIFTH CRUSADE: Crusader army, at first led by John of Brienne, captures Damietta in Egypt but loses it soon again due to interference of Cardinal Pelagius who assumes command; inept leadership leads to entrapment; entire army surrenders to Egyptians; St. Francis of Assisi attempts to convert Egyptian Sultan el-Malik el-Kamil, who listens, but politely declines offer.|
|1228-1229||Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II of Germany undertakes 'crusade' as penance from Pope; negotiates agreement with Egyptian Sultan el-Malik el-Kamil for return of Jerusalem; has married Isabel (Yolande) de Brienne who is (John of Brienneís daughter); claims Kingdom of Jerusalem as regent for their infant son, Conrad.|
|1229-1239||Jerusalem again in Christian hands.|
|1239-1240||'Crusades' by Theobold of Champagne and Richard of Cornwall.|
|1244||Muslims retake Jerusalem and hold it until 1917 (World War I).|
|1247||Jerusalem is captured by Egyptian Mamelukes; hold it until seized by Ottoman Turks in 1517.|
|1248-1254||"Crusade of St. Louis": King Louis IX of France (later canonized) leads 'crusade' to Egypt; crusaders capture Damietta and el-Mansura in eastern Delta, but are ultimately cut off and trapped; Louis IX is taken prisoner and ransomed; goes to Holy Land and rebuilds defenses there.|
|1254||Bohemond VI of Tripoli-Antioch marries Princess Sybilla of Armenia; Antioch becomes vassal of Kingdom of Armenia; Bohemond rules out of Tripoli.|
|1258-1260||Mongols under Hulagu Khan
attack and overrun Mesopotamia; capture and despoil Baghdad (1258), killing Caliph and ending Arab Abbasid Dynasty. In Syria they capture Damascus (1259), then Aleppo (1260).|
Armenians make treaty of alliance with Mongols; Antioch as Armenian vassal must support Armenian-Mongol military actions.
|1260||Battle of Ain Jalut in Jezreel Valley, south of Sea of Galilee; Egyptian and Syrian Mamluk army under Sultan Saif ad-Din Qutuz and General Baibars defeat small Mongol army composed of Mongols and Christian allies from Armenia and Antioch, led by Naiman Kitbuqa Noyan, a Nestorian Christian. Kingdom of Jerusalem-Acre nearby remains neutral, but allows Egyptians to march through its territory and camp and resupply. Mamluk victory halts Mongol advance on Egypt.|
|1261||Byzantines recapture Constantinople with help of Genoese, overthrowing Latin Empire and reestablishing their own government; city is sadly diminished and remains poor, dilapidated, and mostly abandoned until captured by Ottomans in 1453.|
|1268||Fall of Antioch. Mamluk army under Sultan Baibars besieges and conquers Antioch; every Christian is killed or enslaved; County of Tripoli is destroyed.|
|1270||Louis IX's second 'crusade' against Tunis, where he died.|
|1281||Final fall of Acre. Acre, last Christian foothold in Levant, falls to Mamluks. Only Cyprus remains in hands of Lusignan family of Amalric II, who last until 1475, when Cyprus is ceded to Venice.|
|Many other expeditions occurred to which the title of "crusade" was given, sometimes formally. Some were directed against non-Christians (e.g., Moorish Spain and the Slavic people), some against heretics (e.g. the Albigensians), some against kings who had offended the Papacy. Some were also further unsuccessful expeditions to the Near East. In 1464, eleven years after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople, Pope Pius II failed to obtain support for what proved to be a last attempt to mount a further Crusade to that region.|